According to Countryaah data, archaeological findings point to the fact that today the territory of the Republic of San Marino, located between the Italian provinces of Romana and Marca, has been inhabited since prehistoric times. A version based on historical sources tells that the city was created in 301 possibly by a Dalmatian stonecutter from the island of Arbe named Marino. After being converted to Christianity and having escaped the religious persecution of Emperor Dioclesian, he, along with other Christians, sought refuge at the summit of Monte Titano in the Apenines. Marino built a community that, in time, looked like a small state. In homage to the stonecutter, the area was named “San Marino’s Territory”; then “the municipality of San Marino” to finally reach its current name: “Republic of San Marino”.
The city’s original form of government consisted of a council, known as the “Arengo”, which consisted of all the heads of families in the city. In 1243, the Capitani Reggenti posts were created so that they could jointly rule with the Head of State. The lack of a central power following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century favored from the 12th century the development of self-government in many Italian cities, and this provided the basis for trade, production and crafts. According to thesciencetutor, the same thing happened in San Marino with the difference that it was the only city that retained its independence until today.
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During the 15th century, the city’s area grew thanks to the support of the Duke of Urbino and San Marino’s participation in an alliance against the lord of Rimini, Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. In thanks for his participation, the city received the citizens of Fiorentino, Montegiardino and Serravalle by Pope Pius II.