New Zealand’s population had its roots after the Second World War mainly in the UK but also in Germany, the Netherlands, Scandinavia (the number of Swedish kittens is estimated at 10,000) and Southern Europe. Since then, immigrants have also come from East Asia, India and various parts of Polynesia. During most of the 1980s, emigration predominated, mainly to Australia, but since the beginning of the 1990s, immigration has again been greater than emigration and the immigration surplus has gradually increased.
The Maoris, who mostly live on the North Island, amount to about 525,000 people, which corresponds to about 5 percent of the population. 86 percent of the population live in localities with more than 1,000 residents. The largest cities are Auckland (1.5 million residents, 2018) and Christchurch (377,200) on the South Island.
Official languages are English and Maori. English is spoken by the majority of the population, while Maori according to the census is spoken by 4%.
According to Countryaah data, New Zealand is nominally Christian, but 20% of the population does not profess any religion. Three churches dominate: the Anglican (22%), the Presbyterian (16%) and the Roman Catholic (15%). There are many smaller Protestant churches and an Orthodox.
Christian culture was largely introduced through European immigration. The Anglican Church was introduced through missionaries from Australia in 1814. Its first bishop, Selwyn, was also active in the missionary work in Melanesia. Many of the churches have also been established among the Maoris. In addition, several indigenous churches have been developed in the meeting between the Polynesian and the Christian religion.
The ecumenical work is coordinated through the Conference of Churches in Aotearoa and Maori Ecumenical Body in Aotearoa. The large Protestant churches are also members of the Christian Conference of Asia (CCA).
Wellington – City of New Zealand
Wellington, (after AW Wellington), the capital of New Zealand, located south-most on the North Island by the Cook Strait; 397,000 residents (2013). The city is characterized by the strong west wind in the Strait and popularly called Windy City. The town centers on the beautiful harbor, which lies at the mouth of the Hutt Valley, from which the shopping districts rise up the adjacent slopes. The port of Port Nicholson is well protected and considered one of the world’s finest deep water ports; From this, international shipping routes and ferry services to Picton in the South Island are based.
Parts of the city’s original idyllic and distinctive architecture have had to give way to resurfacing of resilient materials, as the city has experienced a series of severe earthquakes, the last of which occurred in 1942 and lasted several weeks. The center is now characterized by a very modern skyline and houses a number of national institutions; of architectural interest is i.e. the Parliament Building, The Beehive. The city’s airport stands somewhat in the shadow of Auckland and serves predominantly domestic traffic. Wellington hosts a number of festivals each year which attracts many tourists; so do the surrounding ridges overlooking the strait, i.e. Mt. Victoria and Kelburn, reached by cable-tram.
According to thesciencetutor, the New Zealand Company, led by EG Wakefield, brought from 1839 British immigrants to the Wellington area, which was then divided between several powerful and conflicting Maori chiefs. Wellington was founded the following year. The company bought Maori land and then sold parcels with great profits; as early as 1842 the city had 4000 residents, and in the next 20 years the figure increased by 10-30% annually. Bloody conflicts soon arose with the Maoris, whose numbers halved in the same period. In 1865 Wellington took over Auckland’s capital status.
Bucharest, Romanian Bucharest, Romania’s capital and largest city located on the Valakian plain on the river Dîmboviţ. The city is a suburban administrative unit of the same name; a total of 1.9 million residents (2003).
Bucharest is Romania’s economic, administrative and cultural center with an inner city characterized by wide boulevards and modern construction. In addition to administration buildings, Bucharest houses numerous higher education institutions, including university from 1864, museums, theaters and churches. Bucharest’s old buildings have been partially restored by the state, by private or by foreign owners. The city’s new upper class is building luxury villas in the neighborhoods reserved for the former communist elite.
Rising private trade in everything from luxury goods stores and cafes to small kiosks and flea markets has transformed the city from the gray and monotonous to the lively and chaotic. However, uncontrolled relocation, overdue infrastructure and greatly increased traffic have created traffic problems, as is the city characterized by architectural disarray and ravaged by crime.
An extensive industry is located on the outskirts of the city. Metal is processed and manufactured, among other things. diesel engines, chemical products, paper, electronics, textiles and food products. The city has a large network of subways built since 1979. The newest line, the M4, was opened in 2000.
The first mention of Bucharest is from 1459, when the Valakian prince Vlad Ţepes (Vlad Spidderen) built a fortress as a defense against Turkish attacks. After the Turkish conquest, Bucharest became the first residence of Valakia in 1659. In 1859, when the provinces of Valakia and Moldova were united to the newly formed Romania, Bucharest became the capital and at that time had 142,000 residents.
Between World War I and Bucharest, Bucharest grew as the country’s industrial and administrative center, and much of the trade was run by the city’s Jewish minority. Numerous cultural offerings, a mild climate, parks as well as luxury villas and mansions made the city known as “Balkan Paris”.
During World War II, Bucharest was exposed to the bombing of the Allies and, later, to the raging of the Germans during their retreat.
During the communist period, the city was rebuilt with large factories and monumental Stalinist “cake cake architecture”. Gypsy neighborhoods were demolished, and large residential neighborhoods with hundreds of housing blocks were erected, as were the population increased, so that the Romanian industry could be supplied with labor. Under Nicolae Ceauşescu’s regime, Bucharest became the country’s political center. In 1977, the city was hit by a severe earthquake that killed 1,300 people and destroyed a large number of buildings, mostly old building in the city center. In 1984, Ceauşescu launched a project to wipe out the remnants of ancient Bucharest in favor of a socialist-inspired city center.
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One-fifth of the city’s built-up area was demolished and several monumental building projects started; thousands of homes and 40 Orthodox churches had to give way to the large mansions, ministries, luxury apartments for party officials and wide boulevards for parades, as well as a gigantic palace for Ceauşescu, the “House of the People”; the disputed edifice, which with its 1,500 rooms is the second largest in the world, houses the Romanian parliament since 1994.