According to Countryaah data, the first residents of the island of Great Britain were paleolithic hunters who followed herds of wild animals. After the ice age, some farmers began to settle on the island. Over millennia, these people and others who emigrated from the continent developed advanced social systems. In the year 44, the southern part of the island was invaded by the Romans. In the year 90 they founded the province of Britania and between the years 70 and 100 London was founded. At the beginning of the 5th century, the Romans left the island again. A short time later, the island was invaded by anglers, Saxons and Jutters of Germanic descent. They pushed the Celts towards the west coast of the island and occupied the southern part of the country where they formed Anglo-Saxon realms.
Throughout the 5th century, the residents of Ireland and Wales became Christians. In the 7th century Rome joined the British Church.
In it 7-9th century, the eastern part of the country was invaded by Danes. In the 11th century, the Normans under the leadership of William the Conqueror invaded the island and submitted to it. The Anglo-Norman kings developed a strong administration and brought two noble rebellions under control.
King Richard the Lionheart (1189-1199) was one of the leaders of the Third Crusade. The prestige he had won was lost again under his successor John (1199-1216). England lost its French territories, and the Barons, in alliance with the Church, exploited the Crown’s weakness to make a number of concessions in the Constitution of 1215. This document formed the basis of British parliamentarism. From this point on, a constant struggle ensued over the power between the monarchy and the nobility, which the bourgeoisie later joined. Parliament represented the interests of these classes, and eventually the parliamentary monarchy was consolidated.
The frequent succession struggles, the British’s desire to take over the French throne, the trade rivalry between the two nations of Flanders and the French support for Scotland in its wars against England were all factors that triggered the so-called Centenary War (1337-1453), which ended in British defeat and lost its colonies on the continent.
The military defeats increased the crown’s disgust, and it had to crack down on the anti-papal movement led by Wycliffe’s supporters and a peasant revolt. The peasants led by Wat Tyler rebelled against the duty to pay taxes and the power of the feudal lords. In 1381, Tyler invaded London and entered into direct negotiations with the King. Still, the rebellion failed and Tyler was executed.
In the period following the Hundred Years War, the houses of Lancaster and York fought for the succession to the monarchy. It triggered the War of the Two Roses, the result of which was the Tudor family’s takeover of power in 1485. The Tudor period is considered the beginning of the modern British state. One of the Tudors, Henry VIII (1509-47) broke with Rome, confiscated all the Catholic monasteries and founded the Anglican Church. It was the desire to expand British power and reform the religion in Ireland that was the reason why Henry’s successor, Elisabeth I (1558-1603) submitted to Ulster. The British invasion of Ireland was the starting point for centuries of political and religious conflict.
Under Elisabeth I, poetry and theater flourished – Ben Jonson, Marlowe, Shakespeare. Industry and trade were developed and the colony adventure started – the starting point for the future empire. After the victory over the Spanish armada – the so-called Invincible Fleet – in the Battle of Calais (1588), the British fleet became “the ruler of the gardens”. No fleet was strong enough to stand against it.
According to thesciencetutor, the British merchant ships used for the trade of slaves, pirates and freighters as well as the settlers of the colonies were free to roam the seas. The markets were growing rapidly and manufacturers were forced to use new techniques to increase their production. It was the prelude to the 17th century industrial revolution that unfolded in the country.
The union under Jacob I (1603-25) between the Scottish and English crown meant that the independence of the Scottish monarchy ceased. The religious intolerance of Karl I provoked a revolt in Scotland and rising discontent in England. The ever-worsening political situation led the Puritan Party to arm its own army, led by Oliver Cromwell, who in 1642 defeated the royal forces. In 1649 Parliament condemned the King to death and appointed Cromwell to Lord Protector. The Commonwealth Republic was thus a reality and it evolved into a despotic regime. After his death, the monarchy under Karl II was reinstated.
The new regime promoted the colonization of North America and trade with America, the Far East and the Mediterranean. The slave trade, ie. the abduction, dispatch and sale of Africans to America and elsewhere had begun in the 16th century. It now became one of the empire’s most important sources of income.
London – City of England
London, the capital of the United Kingdom, the seat of the royal house, government and parliament, as well as the country’s economic, political and cultural center, located in southern England by the River Thames, which winds west-east through the city; 8.17 million (2011) in the Greater London Region. The urban area covers most of the lowland basin between the North Downs highlands to the south and the Chiltern Hills to the NE, an area with a radius of approximately 25 km from the city center and surrounded by The Green Belt, which is predominantly free of buildings. The functional urban region is much larger.
Greater London consists of 32 municipalities, boroughs, with municipal autonomy as well as the City of London with a special autonomy, which according to very old and complicated rules is handled by the Corporation of the City of London. Overall, London has been managed by the Greater London Authority since 2000.
In terms of population, London continues to be among the world’s largest cities. in business context and as a tourist destination, due to the city’s history and especially its development during industrialization into one of the world’s largest capitals, the British Empire’s power center and the world’s financial center. After the Second World War, these positions have weakened, as have the traditional low-rise buildings, including with typical English townhome neighborhoods spreading the city has been broken by office high-rises.
London is generally and at the district level characterized by quite large class differences. In addition, there is a wide composition in the ethnic background of the residents, partly because of relations with the former British Empire and partly because of other historical immigrations. The 2011 census showed that 36.7% of Greater London’s population was born outside the UK, plus a large number of second- and third-generation immigrants. 59.8% of the population is white and 44.9% are white British. The largest non-British groups are Indians (262,200), Poles (158,300), Irish (129,800). In addition, there are large groups of Nigerians, Pakistanis, Bengalis and Jamaicans. It is estimated that around 50,000 Danes live in London.
Already from 1700-t. London grew enormously in population and area. French and Flemish weavers settled in the East End, rich and poor (Eastern European) Jews in respectively. Westminster and the East End, where also poor Irish and Southern Europeans moved. The Chinese first came to Limehouse at the docks in the port area, later to the central area of Soho, to which, among other things, Greek Cypriots and Italians came as it evolved from artist quarters to entertainment quarters with, among other things. many restaurants. Later migrants from the West Indies, Asia and Africa settled mainly south in Brixton and west in Notting Hill as well as in more remote slum suburbs and new large municipal housing complexes.
London. The flash caused extensive damage in, among other things. London; here is the area around St. Paul’s Cathedral in flames after a German bomb attack on 29 December 1940. In London alone, around 20,000 people were killed during the Blitz, which caused extensive evacuations of children and women in particular. But the lightning strengthened rather than broke the morale of the British people. Many crowded into the underground stations, others took pride in ignoring the attacks, and after the initial fright, London’s cinemas and theaters were able to report good search during the flash.
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Originally, London developed around the segregated and rival districts.
Architecture and museums
Among the oldest buildings in London is the fortress Tower of London.
For centuries, London has been a powerhouse for European music and theater.
The city has roots back in time shortly after the Roman conquest of Britain.