Bulgaria is a small country located in the southeastern part of Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. Bulgaria has a population of about 7 million people and its capital is Sofia. The official language of Bulgaria is Bulgarian, but other languages such as Turkish, Romani, and English are also spoken. Bulgaria has a rich history that dates back centuries. It was once part of the Roman Empire and later became part of the Ottoman Empire until it finally gained independence in 1878. Today, Bulgaria is a popular tourist destination due to its stunning natural beauty and cultural attractions. Its stunning beaches along the Black Sea coast are especially popular with visitors from around the world who come here to enjoy its Mediterranean climate and sun-drenched coastline. See countryaah.com for other countries that start with letter B.
According to Countryaah data, in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE, Bulgaria was invaded by slaves who settled in the Danube-Aegean area. The original population, the Thracians and the Illyrians, were partly displaced and partly integrated with the conquerors. The slaves have no central government, but were organized in smaller agricultural societies.
According to thesciencetutor, the Bulgarians who arrived in the area in the late 5th century were among the non-European tribes who followed in the wake of the devastating Mongol invasion led by Atila. It was fearless warriors on horseback who nourished themselves by war and plunder; they temporarily settled on the steppes north of the Black Sea and northeast of the Danube.
Some tribes disappeared and others were made slaves by the Turks. The tribes Kubrat led remained in this area until the middle of the 7th century. Under pressure from the kazars, they were forced to cross the Danube and came to Moesia, which was then a province of the Byzantine Empire. The emperor, Constantine the 4th, formally recognized the Bulgarian state in 681.
As a result of the numerous attacks against the Byzantines, the Bulgarian troops succeeded in gaining ground to the south and reached Constantinople which was besieged. After the invasion of the Magyars in the late 9th century, the Bulgarians left northern Danubia and half of the southern part of the river valley was depopulated, p. the repeated assaults and looting of various alien tribes.
While the northeastern kingdom was subject to several invasions from the Russians, Magyars and others, it was the central and southeastern regions where the new state was established. The Bulgarian leaders introduced the Slavic culture and the Slavic language. Prince Boris was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church, but in 870 he converted to the Greek Orthodox Church.
Rome refused to appoint a local patriarch, while the Byzans patriarch recognized the independence of the Bulgarian church, which was an indispensable support for the maintenance of the kingdom. With Simeón, 893-927, the borders of the Bulgarian Empire were extended to the Adriatic. The Serbs were defeated and the kingdom became the most powerful in Eastern Europe.
With Simeon’s death, a phase began where the Bulgarian power began to weaken, partly because internal strife on the part of the nobility, partly the growing resistance among the peasants, as well as foreign attacks. In 1014, Bulgaria lost all the territory that had belonged to Byzans for 150 years. After an uprising in 1185, Bulgaria’s northern region again gained independence.
Bulgaria regained former strength in the reign of Iván Asen from 1218-1241. He also ruled Albania, Epiro, Macedonia and Thrace, but none of his successors was able to establish a centralized regime that could control feudal tendencies. The last bastion fell in 1393, and the Bulgarian state became subject to the Turkish Ottomans.
The Ottoman Empire began to crumble in the 17th and 18th centuries following the wars against Austria and the failed siege of Vienna. Bulgaria was a largely unknown area for Europeans in the early 19th century, despite the Bulgarian volunteers participating in the uprisings in Serbia and Greece. The former Bulgarian state was invaded by Russia in 1810 and 1828.
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During this period, the identity of the Bulgarian people was preserved primarily through the language that remained intact, through the music and folk tales. The Greek Church took over the religious leadership and suppressed the independent patriarchy during the years of Turkish supremacy; the Bulgarian monks were therefore among the initiators of a national liberation movement.