the first residents of the island of Great Britain were
paleolithic hunters who followed herds of wild animals.
After the ice age, some farmers began to settle on the
island. Over millennia, these people and others who
emigrated from the continent developed advanced social
systems. In the year 44, the southern part of the island was
invaded by the Romans. In the year 90 they founded the
province of Britania and between the years 70 and 100 London
was founded. At the beginning of the 5th century, the Romans
left the island again. A short time later, the island was
invaded by anglers, Saxons and Jutters of Germanic descent.
They pushed the Celts towards the west coast of the island
and occupied the southern part of the country where they
formed Anglo-Saxon realms.
Throughout the 5th century, the residents of Ireland
and Wales became Christians. In the 7th century Rome joined
the British Church.
In it 7-9th century, the eastern part of the country was
invaded by Danes. In the 11th century, the Normans under the
leadership of William the Conqueror invaded the island and
submitted to it. The Anglo-Norman kings developed a strong
administration and brought two noble rebellions under
King Richard the Lionheart (1189-1199) was one of the
leaders of the Third Crusade. The prestige he had won was
lost again under his successor John (1199-1216). England
lost its French territories, and the Barons, in alliance
with the Church, exploited the Crown's weakness to make a
number of concessions in the Constitution of 1215. This
document formed the basis of British parliamentarism.
From this point on, a constant struggle ensued over the
power between the monarchy and the nobility, which the
bourgeoisie later joined. Parliament represented the
interests of these classes, and eventually the
parliamentary monarchy was consolidated.
The frequent succession struggles, the British's desire
to take over the French throne, the trade rivalry between
the two nations of Flanders and the French support for
Scotland in its wars against England were all factors that
triggered the so-called Centenary War (1337-1453), which
ended in British defeat and lost its colonies on the
The military defeats increased the crown's disgust, and
it had to crack down on the anti-papal movement led by
Wycliffe's supporters and a peasant revolt. The
peasants led by Wat Tyler rebelled against the duty to pay
taxes and the power of the feudal lords. In 1381, Tyler
invaded London and entered into direct negotiations with the
King. Still, the rebellion failed and Tyler was executed.
In the period following the Hundred Years War, the houses
of Lancaster and York fought for the succession to the
monarchy. It triggered the War of the Two Roses, the result
of which was the Tudor family's takeover of power in 1485.
The Tudor period is considered the beginning of the modern
British state. One of the Tudors, Henry VIII (1509-47) broke
with Rome, confiscated all the Catholic monasteries and
founded the Anglican Church. It was the desire to expand
British power and reform the religion in Ireland that was
the reason why Henry's successor, Elisabeth I (1558-1603)
submitted to Ulster. The British invasion of Ireland
was the starting point for centuries of political and
Under Elisabeth I, poetry and theater flourished - Ben
Jonson, Marlowe, Shakespeare. Industry and trade were
developed and the colony adventure started - the starting
point for the future empire. After the victory over the
Spanish armada - the so-called Invincible
Fleet - in the Battle of Calais (1588), the British fleet
became "the ruler of the gardens". No fleet was strong
enough to stand against it.
The British merchant ships used for the trade of slaves,
pirates and freighters as well as the settlers
of the colonies were free to roam the seas. The markets were
growing rapidly and manufacturers were forced to use new
techniques to increase their production. It was the prelude
to the 17th century industrial revolution that
unfolded in the country.
The union under Jacob I (1603-25) between the Scottish
and English crown meant that the independence of the
Scottish monarchy ceased. The religious intolerance of Karl
I provoked a revolt in Scotland and rising discontent in
England. The ever-worsening political situation led the
Puritan Party to arm its own army, led by Oliver Cromwell,
who in 1642 defeated the royal forces. In 1649 Parliament
condemned the King to death and appointed Cromwell to
Lord Protector. The Commonwealth Republic
was thus a reality and it evolved into a despotic regime.
After his death, the monarchy under Karl II was reinstated.
The new regime promoted the colonization of
North America and trade with America, the Far East and the
Mediterranean. The slave trade, ie. the abduction, dispatch
and sale of Africans to America and elsewhere had begun in
the 16th century. It now became one of the empire's most
important sources of income.
London - City of England
London, the capital of the United Kingdom, the seat of the royal house,
government and parliament, as well as the country's economic, political and
cultural center, located in southern England by the River Thames, which winds
west-east through the city; 8.17 million (2011) in the Greater London Region.
The urban area covers most of the lowland basin between the North Downs
highlands to the south and the Chiltern Hills to the NE, an area with a radius
of approximately 25 km from the city center and surrounded by The Green Belt, which is
predominantly free of buildings. The functional urban region is much larger.
Greater London consists of 32 municipalities, boroughs, with municipal
autonomy as well as the City of London with a special autonomy, which according
to very old and complicated rules is handled by the Corporation of the City of
London. Overall, London has been managed by the Greater London Authority since
In terms of population, London continues to be among the world's largest
cities. in business context and as a tourist destination, due to the city's
history and especially its development during industrialization into one of the
world's largest capitals, the British Empire's power center and the world's
financial center. After the Second World War, these positions have weakened, as
have the traditional low-rise buildings, including with typical English townhome
neighborhoods spreading the city has been broken by office high-rises.
London is generally and at the district level characterized by quite large
class differences. In addition, there is a wide composition in the ethnic
background of the residents, partly because of relations with the former
British Empire and partly because of other historical immigrations. The 2011
census showed that 36.7% of Greater London's population was born outside the UK,
plus a large number of second- and third-generation immigrants. 59.8% of the
population is white and 44.9% are white British. The largest non-British groups
are Indians (262,200), Poles (158,300), Irish (129,800). In addition, there are
large groups of Nigerians, Pakistanis, Bengalis and Jamaicans. It is estimated
that around 50,000 Danes live in London.
Already from 1700-t. London grew enormously in population and area. French
and Flemish weavers settled in the East End, rich and poor (Eastern European)
Jews in respectively. Westminster and the East End, where also poor Irish and
Southern Europeans moved. The Chinese first came to Limehouse at the docks in
the port area, later to the central area of Soho, to which, among other things,
Greek Cypriots and Italians came as it evolved from artist quarters to
entertainment quarters with, among other things. many restaurants. Later
migrants from the West Indies, Asia and Africa settled mainly south in Brixton
and west in Notting Hill as well as in more remote slum suburbs and new large
municipal housing complexes.
London. The flash caused extensive damage in, among other things. London;
here is the area around St. Paul's Cathedral in flames after a German bomb
attack on 29 December 1940. In London alone, around 20,000 people were killed
during the Blitz, which caused extensive evacuations of children and women in
particular. But the lightning strengthened rather than broke the morale of the
British people. Many crowded into the underground stations, others took pride in
ignoring the attacks, and after the initial fright, London's cinemas and
theaters were able to report good search during the flash.
Originally, London developed around the segregated and rival districts.
Architecture and museums
Among the oldest buildings in London is the fortress Tower of London.
For centuries, London has been a powerhouse for European music and theater.
The city has roots back in time shortly after the Roman conquest of Britain.