In 2019, Swaziland had a population density of 65 residents per km2. About 24 percent of the population lives in cities (2017), of which the industrial and commercial center Manzini (94 900 residents, 2010) and the capital Mbabane (61 800) are the largest. According to Countryaah data, the differences between the city and the countryside are great.
Since independence, according to thesciencetutor, Swaziland has received a significant number of refugees, mainly from Mozambique but also from South Africa.
The population is completely dominated by the Swazi people, a Bantu people who speak a Nguni language and are divided into a series of patrilinear clans, organized in a hierarchical organization. The power of political assemblies at both local and national levels is balanced between aristocratic and non-aristocratic clans. The king’s wives and children live in special royal villages, which are scattered in different parts of the country. Across the clan system and its organization, a division of the adult males into different age classes also cuts. The age-class system forms the basis for the military organization, which has strong ceremonial features. Within Swaziland, several other bantu groups have been absorbed by the Swazi culture, which was gradually established in the present Swaziland from the 16th century. Although the Swazi culture has a close relationship with the Zulu culture, the Swazi kings never entered into an alliance with Zulu during the many wars and ravages that Zulu undertook, especially during the 19th century. Swaziland instead became a sanctuary for many bantu groups who fled the Zulu War. The supply in Swaziland has traditionally been based on agriculture and livestock care, but within the aristocracy, large incomes have been acquired through concessions to Europeans. Alongside the Swazi people, small contingents of Zulu (96,000), Tsonga (25,000) and Whites (18,000) of South African descent reside in the country. The supply in Swaziland has traditionally been based on agriculture and livestock care, but within the aristocracy, large incomes have been acquired through concessions to Europeans. Alongside the Swazi people, small contingents of Zulu (96,000), Tsonga (25,000) and Whites (18,000) of South African descent reside in the country.
Official languages are English and Siswati (Swazi), a Bantu language that is the mother tongue of the majority of the population. Smaller groups speak other bantu languages, such as tsonga and zulu.
In Swaziland today almost 90% are Christians. Christianity came to the country late; the first Christian communities were established in the 19th century. Among the larger communities are native Zionist churches. These consist of a mixture of Christianity and domestic worship of the ancestors. They started operating in the country in 1917 and today over 40% (2010) of Swazis are members of one of these. There are also small groups of Muslims in the country, mainly immigrants from South Asia. About one-twentieth of the population belongs to the Catholic Church.
It is estimated that approximately one in ten Swazis encompasses indigenous traditional religion, which does not preclude their participation in the activities of Christian churches and communities. A clear example of this is that the king is the country’s religious leader. He is responsible for and has control over the sacred medicine of the indigenous traditional religion that gives the country rain. He is also solely responsible to the ancestors for how the Swazis behave. At the same time, the royal house and the government support many Christian activities. The king and other members of the royal family participate in worship services at Christian holidays such as Easter. On these occasions, the king is invited to preach.
The country is an authoritarian monarchy. The current constitution (which came into force in 2006) rests on religious grounds. It begins with the people of the Kingdom of Swaziland humbly submitting to God, which can be interpreted as the Constitution stipulating Christianity as the country’s official religion. The constitution and other laws guarantee religious freedom, but religious minorities are sometimes discriminated against as traditional law and custom, as well as the authority of some 360 chieftains, tend to disadvantage them.
Christian programs, but not programs from non-Christian organizations, are available through state etheric media. Religious education, mainly in Christianity but also some general religious education, in compulsory school is compulsory in the lower stages, but voluntary in the higher.
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The following days are national holidays: Good Friday, Easter Day, Ascension Day and Christmas Day.