According to Countryaah, Cameroon is the country of origin and center of the Bantu tribes, which in the 2nd century BCE. began an expansion to the east and south and thus gained widespread knowledge of growing new crops and extracting iron. The first meeting with the Europeans was quite short; Fernando Pó christened the river, whose sandy banks were full of shrimp, for the “Shrimp River” – of which the name of the country.
The area’s entry into a more economically complex environment was due to the immigration of the Fulani (See Niger: “Roads of the Sahara” and Senegal: “The States of the Fulani”) – which later became the Adamauma emirate, in the country’s northern and central region.
The German invasion took place in June 1884, when Representative Gustav Nachtigal signed an agreement to establish a protectorate with the coastal population king of the Duals. At the Berlin Conference a year later, Cameroon was transferred to Germany, but it was not until 1894 that the Adauma emirate, much sought after by the English, was formally incorporated into the country.
The protectorate faced problems right from the start: the Duals were on trade between the coastal areas and the Yaoundé, which was a hub of relations between the South and the Adauma emirate that the Germans wanted to control. The Dualas opposed this and it resulted in a 4 year long and bloody war. (1897 to 1901).
The Germans acquired the fertile soils of the Africans and these died in thousands of famines after surviving for centuries without nutritional problems. France and England invaded Cameroon in 1918; the French settled on 75% of the country while the English were allocated the remainder. The conflicts between the two colonial powers enabled the formation of popular movements that fought for independence. In 1945, Cameroon’s People’s Union (UPC) was formed under the leadership of Rubem Um Nyobé. The UPC gained wide popular support and led a series of legal demonstrations, from 1948 to 1956, when the party was banned.
The nationalist leaders fled to the western part of the country, which was under English domination, from which a resistance movement was formed. As the first in southern Africa, the UPC established liberated zones in the jungle areas and formed autonomous management structures. The effectiveness of the resistance movement enabled it to withstand the siege of the French until 1960. Two years earlier, Rubem Um Nyobé had died at the death, but the uprising continued.
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The UPC’s resistance struggle forced France to combine the armed struggle with political means. Paris created the Cameroon National Union, (UNC), which was a merger between two Conservative parties, led by politicians from the northern areas of Islamic observance. According to thesciencetutor, when France accepted Cameroon’s independence, UNC leader Alhaji Ahmadou Ahidjo took power. UNC continued as a government party with the approval of the English following a referendum. With the reunification, a nationalist wish was fulfilled, but it did not benefit the UPC, whose leadership was for the most part either underground or in exile.