Population and ethnography
Due to the conflict with Armenia over the autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh, and consequent large-scale migration, the population statistics for Azerbaijan are uncertain. According to thesciencetutor, the country of Azerbaijan has an average population density of 114 residents per km2, and the most densely populated area is the Apsjeron Peninsula.
About 53 percent of the country’s population lives in cities, of which the capital Baku holds a quarter. Other cities include Gjandzja (328,400 residents, 2015) and Sumgait (290,500). In 2009, the Azeri comprised just over 90 percent of the population. The largest ethnic minorities were Russians (392,000), Armenians (390,000) and Lezgins (171,000).
The Azeris, which began to immigrate in the 600s and in the 1400s, had reached their present extent, have traditionally been mainly farming, horticulture and livestock farming (partly in nomadic form), but have also conducted extensive trade. Among the binaries, the manufacture of Azerbaijani rugs and other textile crafts has played an important role. There are rich traditions in the decorative design of wood and metal utensils and ornaments.
The traditional costume for the men consisted of a “choka”, a kaftan, wide trousers of common frontal oriental type and “papach”, a fur cap, while the women wore similar, even wider trousers and a shorter jacket. In both cases, the mill is in sharp decline, except in connection with “folkloristic” manifestations. The Azerians have maintained a still lifelong musical tradition, practiced by “asjugs” (aşïc), who improvise songs to their own accompaniment. Folk poetry became relatively late for documentation.
In recent years, research on the Azeri has intensified and there are both special journals and a large number of publications. Folklore research is led by the Institute for Literature Studies, while ethnographic research is primarily done at the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography at the University, both at the National Academy of Sciences in Baku.
According to Countryaah data, Turkish language Azerbaijani is official language. In the northern parts there are elements of Northeast Caucasian languages (including the daytime languages Lezginska, Udi, Tsachur and Avaric). In southeastern Azerbaijan, on the Caspian Sea, the Iranian language is spoken. Armenian is spoken mainly in the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave. Other languages are Russian, Tat (an Iranian language), Kurdish and Tatar.
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The most dominant religious affiliation among the Azeris is Shiite Islam, unlike other Turkmen who are usually Sunni Muslims. People’s religiosity shows some pre-Islamic features such as reverence for the fire, ancestors, holy places and celebration of Nauroz – the Persian New Year.
The significant Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh is Christian, as are Christians in the Russian minority.
The Soviet Republic of. it was proclaimed in 1918. After a brief British occupation (1918) and the harsh repression of the Bolshevik leaders, the government passed to the Musavat (nationalist) party, supported by the Turks and then again by the British. A communist insurrection led, in 1920, to the proclamation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of., Which became part of the USSR in 1922 as part of the newly established Transcaucasian Federation, and therefore from 1936 as a federated republic.
In 1991 the Azerbaijan he proclaimed himself independent and the presidency of the republic was assumed by Azerbaijan Mutalibov (first secretary of the Communist Party since 1990). The rekindling of nationalisms and inter-ethnic crises immediately led to a conflict with Armenia, following the secessionist attempt of Nagornyj Karabah with a strong Armenian majority. In 1992 with a coup d’etat of the National Front, Azerbaijan Elčibey became president of the Republic, in turn overthrown and replaced in 1993 by H. Aliyev,later confirmed in power by a plebiscite election. Contested political elections of 1995 saw the party affirmation of the new Azerbaijan of Aliev. At the same time, a new Constitution was approved which provided for a strengthening of presidential powers. In 2003 Aliyev withdrew due to illness and, after hotly contested elections followed by street protests by the opposition, violently repressed by the police, his son Ilham became president. The parliamentary elections of 2005 were also held in a climate of violence and intimidation, again won by Aliyev’s party; the politician was reconfirmed atpresidential elections of 2008 and 2013, and his party obtained an absolute majority of seats in the consultations of 2010 and 2015. In September 2016, a popular referendum approved with 91% of the votes the introduction of reforms to strengthen power of Aliyev and facilitate the transmission of the charge to the children; in April 2018 the politician was re-elected for a fourth term with 86% of the votes, and in the same month he appointed N. Mammadov as prime minister of the country.
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Fortress City of Baku with the Shirvanshah Palace and the Maiden Tower (2000); Gobustan rock art cultural landscape (2007).