Syria, located in the heart of the Middle East, is known for its ancient history, diverse cultures, and a population of over 17 million. Operating as a republic, Syria’s political landscape has been deeply affected by the ongoing conflict that began in 2011, resulting in significant humanitarian crises and geopolitical complexities. President Bashar al-Assad, in power since 2000, leads the government amid internal and external challenges. The conflict has led to the rise of multiple factions, including the government forces, opposition groups, and extremist organizations. Cities like Damascus and Aleppo, once vibrant cultural centers, have faced extensive damage. Syria’s economy, primarily based on agriculture, industry, and oil, has suffered severe setbacks due to the conflict. The cultural heritage of Syria, including historic sites like Palmyra, has also been heavily impacted. Geopolitically, Syria’s complex situation involves regional and international actors with varying interests. The nation faces significant challenges related to reconstruction, refugee resettlement, and political stability. As Syria navigates the path to recovery, its historical significance, rich cultural identity, and the quest for political resolution contribute to its evolving role in the Middle East and the global arena. It’s essential to note that developments in Syria are dynamic, and the situation may have evolved. For the latest information, it’s advisable to refer to more recent sources. EQUZHOU: Features political system of Syria.