Ethnic composition

Peru is a multiethnic nation formed by the combination of different groups over five centuries, currently a relative mestizo majority is observed. The indigenous populations inhabited the Peruvian territory for several millennia before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century ; Mainly due to infectious diseases, its population declined from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620.

During the viceroyalty, Spaniards and Africans arrived in great numbers, mixing widely with each other and with the native population. After independence there has been a gradual European immigration from Spain, Italy, England, France and Germany.

The Chinese arrived in the 1850s as replacement for slave laborers and have since become an important influence in Peruvian society. Other immigrant groups include Arabs and Japanese.


Spanish is the first language of 80.3% of Peruvians over five years of age and is the primary language of the country. This coexists with several native languages, of which the most important is Quechua, spoken by 16.5% of the population in 1993. For that same year, other native and foreign languages were spoken by 3% and 0.2% of Peruvians respectively. Several residents of European and Asian descent have schools where their children are taught Italian, Colegio Antonio Raimondi; German, Colegio Von Humboldt; English among many: Lincoln; Japanese at the Peruvian Japanese School. In Hebrew, Colegio León Pinelo. The Peruvian economists of the IMF who have been and are ministers of education, promote (promoted) the universal teaching of English from kindergarten. By inertia in some departments the teaching of aboriginal languages is taught.

Official languages of Peru

The official languages are:

  1. Spanish throughout the Peruvian territory
  2. The achuar, aguaruna, aimara, amahuaca, ashaninka, bora, arabela, cacataibo, candoshi, capanahua, cashibo-cacataibo, cashinahua, chamicuro, chayahuita, cocama cocamilla, culina, ese eja, huitoto, harakmbut, iñapari, jacaru, jebero, mayoruna, nomatsiguenga, ocaína, orejón, orejón, quechua, resígaro, sequoia, shipibo-conibo, taushiro, ticuna. [7]


According to Educationvv, Peruvian culture has its main roots in Amerindian and Spanish traditions, although it has also been influenced by various ethnic groups in Africa, Asia, and Europe. The Peruvian artistic tradition dates back to the elaborate ceramics, textiles, goldsmithing and sculpture of the pre – Inca cultures. The Incas maintained those trades and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu.

The baroque predominated in viceregal art, although modified by autochthonous traditions. During this period, art was largely concentrated on religious themes; the numerous churches of the time and the paintings of the Cuzco school are proof of this. The arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of indigenismo in the first half of the 20th century. Since the early 1950s the Peruvian art has been eclectic and currents influenced by both international and local.


From the republican era there are several exponents of the Peruvian narrative such as Felipe Pardo and Aliaga, Manuel Ascencio Segura, but the greatest writer of the 19th century was Ricardo Palma with his famous Peruvian Traditions. The figure of the poet César Vallejo stands out in the 20th century, along with many other avant-garde artists such as Martín Adán. In the narrative, Ciro Alegría and José María Arguedas for indigenism; and Julio Ramón Ribeyro, Alfredo Bryce Echenique and Mario Vargas Llosa, for the urban narrative.

The literature of this country, as well as all cultural and artistic manifestations, have gone through various stages, in which it was influenced by national and international movements or currents. The momentous events in history served as inspiration to the artists who expressed the feeling of the time in their work. Various movements are distinguished, according to each era, its ideas and philosophy.


The music of Peru is the product of fusion through many centuries. There are many genres of Peruvian music: Andean, Creole, and Amazon. These can be classified into music and dances from the Peruvian coast, the Peruvian highlands and the Peruvian Amazon. The traditional Creole music of the coast is very varied because precisely this is the region where there was the greatest miscegenation and currently there is, known as Creole music within which we also find Afro-Peruvian dances.

It should be noted that Susana Baca, a renowned Creole singer, has been awarded the Latin Grammy for the best folk album. In addition, Peru has produced some Latin Rock and Pop singers of great acceptance both nationally and internationally, such as Gian Marco, Pedro Suárez Vértiz, the groups Mar de Copas, TK and Libido.


According to the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism, in 2008, exports from this country grew by 11.2%, marketing more than 5 thousand different products, reaching the amount of 31,236 million dollars.

It is estimated that 62.1% of exports correspond to the mining sector. The main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles and fishery products; Its main trading partners are the United States, China, Brazil and Chile.

The main destinations, in 2008, were the United States with 18.5%; China, with 12.0% of exports; Switzerland, with 10.9%; Canada, with 6.2%; Japan, with 5.9%; and Chile, with 5.9%.

Its growth was basically due to the increase in international prices of the products that Peru dispatches, as well as the higher volume of exported products. In recent years, a process of industrialization of agricultural products (agribusiness) and diversification of exports has been observed. The number of exporting companies for 2008 totaled 7,738.

Peru Society