Nepal is a land without access to the sea, located in the middle of the Himalayas between the world’s two most populous nations – India and China. If the geographical location of a country has any bearing on its foreign policy, it has been crucial in Nepal’s case to enter into neutrality between its two major neighbors, which have frequently been rival.
According to Countryaah data, the country has never been colonized. Before Britain established a permanent mission in the capital, Kathmandu, Nepal had embarked on an expansionist policy, first dammed by British colonial troops invading the country from India. As a result, the country lost some areas, which it recovered in 1816.
The British recognized the great fighting ability of the Gurkha warriors after the English-Nepalese war in 1814-16, and while drafting a peace treaty, the colonial power reserved the right to recruit Nepalese to its army. This practice continues today and is being developed by both the British and India on the basis of a tripartite agreement between the 3 countries signed in Kathmandu in November 1947. The Gurkhas were used by India in the war with China (1961-62), with Pakistan (1965 and 71) as well as by Great Britain v Argentina (1982).
King Prithvinarayan Shah – ruler of the Gurkhas – ruled Nepal for the first time in 1769. Up to 1846, the country was now undergoing a period of monarchy. In 1846, the massacre was carried out in Kot and Jang Bahadur Rana now emerged as the country’s strong man, replacing the monarchy as an institution and forcing the queen to appoint prime minister. Succession to this post was introduced and this practice continued until 1951, when the Nepalese Congress, with the support of King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah, succeeded in overthrowing the Rana regime.
From February 1951 to December 1960, the country made a series of democratic experiences. The political parties were allowed to join the government and a general election was also held in 1959 on the basis of a constitution approved by King Mahendra Bir Bikram (1955-72). But December 15, 1960, the head of the Council of Ministers, Prime Minister BP Koirala was arrested, the parliament dissolved and most constitutional rights suspended. The political parties were banned and in December 1962 an alleged democratic system called the Panchayat without political parties was introduced.
According to thesciencetutor, Nepal joined the UN in 1955 and has been an active member of the Alliance Free Countries movement since its inception in Bandung. In July 1986, 75 countries – including the great powers – supported a proposal by King Birendra Bir Birkram Sha Deva to declare the country a peace zone. The proposal was also supported by neighboring countries except India and Bhutan.
From the World Bank scale, Nepal remains one of the world’s least developed and poorest countries. Most of the country is covered by dense vegetation, despite the fact that 90% of the population is employed in agriculture.
India is Nepal’s main trading partner. Since 1950, the two countries have signed numerous trade and trade treaties. The last of these expired in 1989, and since then the two countries have been involved in an unresolved trade war. Nepal was accused by India of importing Chinese weapons, and in March 1989, India responded by suspending trade with Nepal and closing 19 of the 21 roads between the two countries, which had serious consequences for the Nepalese economy. Nepal, on the other hand, made it clear that free transport is a fundamental right for a country without access to the sea, as stated in treaties already signed. Trade relations are another matter. India responded by suspending all trade rights and suspending supplies of petroleum products and other basic products.
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The protests against the Panchayat regime culminated in 1990. Already in 1979, student-protest movements had emerged in Kathmandu and other cities. Under these circumstances, King Birendra printed a referendum, to allow the people to choose between a multi-party democracy and a reformed Panchayat system. The poll was conducted in 1980, and was a disappointment to the many who had hoped for increased democracy, with 55% of the vote being for a reformed Panchayat system. The opposition believed that the result was a consequence of electoral fraud. During the protests in 1990, the king began a dialogue with opposition leaders and accepted political pluralism. The transition to parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy was made by a royal decree in April 1990.