Indonesia, officially Bahasa Indonesia Republic of Indonesia, German Republic of Indonesia, island state in Southeast Asia with (2018) 267.7 million residents; The capital is Jakarta.
Indonesia comprises the main part of the Malay Archipelago with the Great Sunda Islands Borneo (Indonesian Kalimantan; excluding Brunei and the Malaysian states Sabah and Sarawak in the northwest), Sumatra , Java and Celebes (Sulawesi), the Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Alor Islands, Roti, Timor), the Moluccas (Morotai, Halmahera, Ternate, Tidore, Bacan Islands, Obi, Sula Islands, Buru, Ambon, Seram, Kai Islands, Tanimbar Islands, Aru Islands) as well asPapua , the western part of New Guinea (a total of 13 677 islands, 6,000 of them are inhabited).
Around the oldest mainland mass, the core of the sunda plate belonging to the Eurasian plate (which is partly present as a continental shelf, called sunda shelf), several mountain garlands are arranged, which according to plate tectonics, especially since the Mesozoic as igneous arcs on this sunda plate – in the east the Australian or Sahul plate – were folded. With the exception of Borneo , the islands consisting of crystalline rocks as well as layers of sand and limestone from the Upper Mesozoic and Tertiary are mainly characterized by their active volcanism combined with strong earthquake activity: The location on the deep sea trench (Sunda Trench) facing south) marked border with the Indo-Australian plate as well as on the border with the Philippines plate causes a high tectonic instability.
On December 26, 2004, Indonesia was shaken by an earthquake measuring 9.0 (Richter scale), the epicenter of which was near the northwestern tip of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean.
The tidal wave (tsunami) triggered by the quake and numerous aftershocks (magnitude 5.1 on the Richter scale) devastated large stretches of land in the coastal area up to 5 km inland. Banda Aceh as well as the coastal cities in northwest Sumatra and the offshore island groups to the west (Banyak, Mentawai Islands, Nias) were particularly affected. The quake is considered to be the worst natural disaster over the past 120 years and has claimed over 200,000 lives in Indonesia alone; At the end of March 2005 there was another severe earthquake (magnitude of 8.2), more than 6,000 people died as a result of an earthquake at the end of May 2006 (magnitude of 6.2), and further severe earthquakes occurred at the end of September 2009 and October 2010 (magnitude of 7.6 and 7.7). Among a few hundred there are 76 young volcanoes that have erupted since 1600. They form the longest closed series of volcanoes on earth (catastrophic eruptions , e.g. of Krakatau in 1883, Merapi 1930, 1994 and 2010, Batur 1963, Kelud 1919). Mostly these are stratovolcanoes, the cones of which often rise above 3,000 m, sometimes suddenly (as in East Java, for example) from the lowlands. The highest is the Kerinci in Sumatra at 3,805 m above sea level. The highest point in Indonesia is in the glaciated central mountains of New Guinea (in Papua) in the Puncak Jaya with 4,884 m above sea level. Another major geomorphological element are the huge alluvial plains of East Sumatra, South Borneo and North Java, which are supported by the Sunda Shelf, which is only 100–200 m below sea level.
According to carswers, the Judicial Constitution Act of 1970 distinguishes between ordinary, religious, administrative, and military courts. The proper court structure is three-tiered. The Supreme Court of Appeal is the Supreme Court, which is subordinated to higher courts (in the largest cities) and district courts. Religious courts (Sharia courts) decide on disputes relating to Islamic family law. Muslims can still choose a secular court. In the past, the administration of justice was based on the authoritarian state structures.
Modern legislation, codes of law and ordinances from the Dutch colonial era and also regional customary law (Adat) characterize the pluralistic Indonesian law.
There is general compulsory schooling between the ages of 6 and 14. The main national goal in this ethnically and linguistically diverse country is the spread of the official language Bahasa Indonesia. The school system has three levels: six-year primary, three-year junior and three-year senior secondary school, which, together with an entrance examination, leads to the university. Three to four-year commercial and home economics schools provide basic vocational and technical training, while academies and polytechnics provide higher vocational training. In the higher education sector, there are 92 state universities and around 3,100 private universities. – Public spending on education represents (2011) 2.8% of gross domestic product (GDP). The literacy rate among adults (15 year olds and older) is 92.8%.
The media landscape is very diverse. The most popular is television. Foreign programs may not be distributed. Reporting on some subject areas, especially religion, homeland security and environmental issues, is limited. Social networks are used intensively. – Press: Among the 50 major daily newspapers with the highest circulation are “Kompas” (founded in 1965), the tabloid “Pos Kota” (founded in 1970), “Jawa Pos” (founded in 1949), “Rakyat Merdeka” (founded in 1999), ” Media Indonesia “(founded 1970),” Republika “(founded 1993),” Koran Tempo “(founded 2001) and the sports newspaper” Bola “. “The Jakarta Post” (founded 1983), “The Jakarta Globe” (founded 2008) and “The Bali Times” (founded 2005) are in English. – News agencies: Antara (founded in 1937, state-owned), Kantorberita Nasional Indonesia (KNI, founded in 1966, private). – Broadcasting: The state-run Radio Republic of Indonesia (RRI, founded in 1945) broadcasts four radio programs domestically and programs abroad (“Voice of Indonesia”) in ten languages. There are also a large number of mostly commercial and local radio stations. The state television “Televisi Republik Indonesia” (TVRI, founded in 1962) operates four stations (national, regional, culture, sport). The largest private TV stations are “Surja Citra Televisi Indonesia” (SCTV), “Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia” (RCTI), “MNCTV”, “antv”, “Indosiar”, “Trans 7” / “Trans TV”, ” antv ”and“ Metro TV ”(news channel).