In 2019, Slovakia had a population density of 116
residents per km2. The largest concentrations
are found in Bratislava and in the area east and southeast
thereof. In 2019, 54 percent of the population lived in
cities, of which Bratislava (419 700 residents, 2015) and
Košice (239 500) are the largest. The largest population is
Slovak, but there is also a significant proportion of
Hungarians and Roma in the country.
The official language is Slovak, spoken by 4.5 million.
The largest minority language is Hungarian (just over
500,000). Czech, Romani and Ukrainian are spoken as native
languages by significant groups, while the Polish and
Russian minorities are relatively small.
Countryaah data, about 70% of the population (1994) belongs to the Roman
Catholic Church (about 60% with Latin Rite, about 10% with
Byzantine). An autocephalic Orthodox church is found in
eastern Slovakia. The Lutheran Church was founded in 1530.
The Hungarian speakers have been reformed since the 17th
century. As an independent community, Slovakia's Reformed
Church was founded in 1918 after the fall of the Habsburg
Empire (about 20% of the population).
Bratislava, the Slovak capital located on the Danube; 425,533 residents
(2003). The city is located on the border of both Austria and Hungary. Since
Slovakia's independence in 1993, Bratislava has been the seat of the country's
parliament, central administration and the National Bank. The city is home to
i.e. national museum, gallery, theater and symphony orchestra. Half of the
country's higher education is in Bratislava, among others. The Komenský
University of 1919, whose precursor, Academia Istropolitana, was established as
Hungary's first university in 1467. Bratislava's Old Town has undergone a major
renovation, and with its character of Central European Cultural Center it has
developed into an important tourist destination
On the northern river bank lies the old town center, Staré Mesto, with
beautiful Baroque and Rococo churches as well as mansions from the period
1536-1783. On the same side is also the Gothic cathedral Skt. Martin from
1500-1600-t., Who in the period 1563-1830 was the coronation church for the
Hungarian king. On the castle mound lies the castle from the 1600's, which after
a major restoration in the 1960's was designed as a museum. Next to the castle, a
new building houses the Slovak Parliament. The Jewish quarter of the city
between the cathedral and the castle was expropriated in the 1960's in connection
with the building of the entrance to the 432 m long suspension bridge Nový Most
(formerly Most SNP), which connects this district with the suburb of Petržalka
from the 1970's, which has 115,000 houses.
In addition to administration and service, the city has petrochemical and
automotive industries. The Slovnaft oil refinery on the eastern outskirts of the
city has since 1962 received crude oil from Ukraine via the Druzba pipeline.
Bratislava's role as the "gateway to the Balkans" is reflected by the city's
large river port, which is connected to both the Black Sea and the major Central
European canal systems. Bratislava's international airport, Milan Rastislav
Štefánik, has become increasingly important since independence.
The name Bratislava is modern, an expression of Slovak national romance, and
only became official in 1919 after the creation of Czechoslovakia. Before then,
the town was known by the German name Pressburg (Slovak Prešporok) or the
Bratislava emerged as a fortification in the Grand Moorish Empire in the
mid-800th. and is first mentioned 907. From 900-t. until 1918, the city belonged
to the Hungarian crown. Bratislava gained a distinctive character in the 1200's.
and in 1291 royal privileges. When the Ottomans occupied central Hungary, the
Hungarian land day in 1536 moved to Bratislava, which also became the Hungarian
coronation city. The importance of the city diminished from the 1780's, when
Budapest again became the capital. Academia Istropolitana closed in 1491, and
until 1919 the city was without a university.
Around 1900, Bratislava became the industrial center, and after World War I,
the city, with its mixed German, Hungarian and Slovak population, fell to
Czechoslovakia despite Hungarian and Austrian wishes. In the 1990's, over 90% of
Bratislava's population is Slovak.