archaeological findings point to the fact that today the
territory of the Republic of San Marino, located between the
Italian provinces of Romana and Marca, has been inhabited
since prehistoric times. A version based on historical
sources tells that the city was created in 301 possibly by a
Dalmatian stonecutter from the island of Arbe named Marino.
After being converted to Christianity and having escaped the
religious persecution of Emperor Dioclesian, he, along with
other Christians, sought refuge at the summit of Monte
Titano in the Apenines. Marino built a community that, in
time, looked like a small state. In homage to the
stonecutter, the area was named "San Marino's Territory";
then "the municipality of San Marino" to finally reach its
current name: "Republic of San Marino".
The city's original form of government consisted of a
council, known as the "Arengo", which consisted of all the
heads of families in the city. In 1243, the Capitani
Reggenti posts were created so that they could jointly rule
with the Head of State. The lack of a central power
following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th
century favored from the 12th century the development of
self-government in many Italian cities, and this provided
the basis for trade, production and crafts. The same thing
happened in San Marino with the difference that it was the
only city that retained its independence until today.
During the 15th century, the city's area grew thanks to
the support of the Duke of Urbino and San Marino's
participation in an alliance against the lord of Rimini,
Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. In thanks for his
participation, the city received the citizens of Fiorentino,
Montegiardino and Serravalle by Pope Pius II.