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Religion in Romania

Population

Romania has a population density of 82 residents per km 2. The most important population concentrations are the Bucharest area and the country's northeastern parts.

Religions of Romania

In 2019, 54 percent of the population lived in cities, of which Bucharest (1.9 million residents, 2012), Cluj-Napoca (324,600) and Constanţa (283,900) are the largest.

According to Countryaah data, Romania is a multi-ethnic society. According to the latest census, 89.5 percent of the population was Romanian, 7.1 percent of Hungarians and 1.8 percent of Romanians. The true dark figure applies to the Roma, which in 1992 was stated to be 410,000 but in reality probably is 2-3 million.

Language

Romanian is the official language and mother tongue of 90% of the population. Of these, the Roma are probably about 10%. The largest minority group is Hungarian, including Székler and Csángó (8%).

Religion

About 80% of the population (1994) belongs to the Romanian Orthodox Church. There are also significant minorities of Roman Catholics, Lutherans and Reformers, which partly coincides with Romania's ethnic minorities (Germans and Hungarians).

Christianity already came to some of the present Romanian provinces during Roman times and continued to develop under Byzantine, Serbian and Bulgarian influence. The monasteries became centers of piety and religious culture. In 1688 the Bible came in Romanian. The Orthodox Church played an important national role in the 19th century, and an independent Romanian Orthodox Church was formed in 1859 through an outbreak of Constantinople. It was recognized in 1885 and has since 1925 been led by a patriarch based in Bucharest. No formal divorce between church and state was carried out during the communist dictatorship. Church leadership was politically compliant and left in peace, although some priests and believers were imprisoned. A vital church life was developed, especially under the patriarch Justinian (1948-68), with many monasteries and extensive theological education. During the later years of the dictatorship, repression was sharpened, mainly against the religious minorities. After Ceaușescu's fall, the Church has tried to take on a leading role despite difficulties.

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