Romania has a population density of 82 residents per km
2. The most important population concentrations
are the Bucharest area and the country's northeastern parts.
In 2019, 54 percent of the population lived in cities, of
which Bucharest (1.9 million residents, 2012), Cluj-Napoca
(324,600) and Constanţa (283,900) are the largest.
Countryaah data, Romania is a multi-ethnic society. According to the
latest census, 89.5 percent of the population was Romanian,
7.1 percent of Hungarians and 1.8 percent of Romanians. The
true dark figure applies to the Roma, which in 1992 was
stated to be 410,000 but in reality probably is 2-3 million.
Romanian is the official language and mother tongue of
90% of the population. Of these, the Roma are probably about
10%. The largest minority group is Hungarian, including
Székler and Csángó (8%).
About 80% of the population (1994) belongs to the
Romanian Orthodox Church. There are also significant
minorities of Roman Catholics, Lutherans and Reformers,
which partly coincides with Romania's ethnic minorities
(Germans and Hungarians).
Christianity already came to some of the present Romanian
provinces during Roman times and continued to develop under
Byzantine, Serbian and Bulgarian influence. The monasteries
became centers of piety and religious culture. In 1688 the
Bible came in Romanian. The Orthodox Church played an
important national role in the 19th century, and an
independent Romanian Orthodox Church was formed in 1859
through an outbreak of Constantinople. It was recognized in
1885 and has since 1925 been led by a patriarch based in
Bucharest. No formal divorce between church and state was
carried out during the communist dictatorship. Church
leadership was politically compliant and left in peace,
although some priests and believers were imprisoned. A vital
church life was developed, especially under the patriarch
Justinian (1948-68), with many monasteries and extensive
theological education. During the later years of the
dictatorship, repression was sharpened, mainly against the
religious minorities. After Ceaușescu's fall, the Church has
tried to take on a leading role despite difficulties.