the island is located in the central Pacific Ocean and was
originally inhabited by immigrant Polynesians, Micronesians
and Melanesians. English Captain John Fearn was the first
European to visit the island, which he named Pleasant
Island. Throughout the 19th century, the island was
frequently visited by whaling vessels until it was annexed
by Germany in 1888.
In the year 1900, the Australian Albert Ellis found a
stone on his desk in Sydney that a traveler had sent him in
the hope that it would be used to make balls for children.
The analysis of the stone instead revealed the phosphate
that should make Naura a very rich country. In 1905, an
Anglo-German company began extracting the mineral resources.
At the outbreak of World War I, Australia occupied Nauru,
which at the end of the war became Australian mandated
territory. During World War II, the island was occupied by
Japan, which deported over 1000 residents to Truk in
present-day Micronesia. They were forced into forced labor,
and only 700 returned home after the war. The island was
again submerged in Australia and a multinational
English-Australian-New Zealand group resumed the extraction
Historically, the Naurus are fishermen, so they had
difficulty adapting to mining. They were instead replaced by
immigrant Chinese. Immigration assumed such an extent that
in 1964, the Australian government proposed to the Naurus to
move to another island or to Australia. The indigenous
people blankly rejected the proposal, demanding immediate
autonomy as well as a halt to the extraction of the
country's only natural resource.
The mining was nationalized in 1967, which led to a
tremendous growth in per-capita income. In 1992, the minimum
wage was $ 6,500. On 31 January 1968, Nauru declared himself
independent and rejected the Australian attempts at
continued domination. It remains the smallest republic on
earth. A year later, it was admitted as a member of the
British state community, the Commonwealth.
In 1970, the mining company was nationalized and every
family head became a shareholder in it. This raised average
income above the level in many industrialized countries,
although income distribution is not even.