During the World War and the following decades, the industry
in the region underwent a renewed expansion, which was
mainly concentrated on the production of machinery, building
materials and electricity.
In 1961-82, Turdakún Usubaliev was the first secretary of
the Kyrgyz Communist Party. As a result of the changes that
took place in the Soviet Union from 1986 during Mikhail
Gorbachov's reign, a strong independence movement developed
in Kyrgyzstan, and after the failed coup attempt against
Gorbachov in August 1991, Kyrgyzstan decided to disengage
from the Soviet Union.
on August 31, 1991, the Supreme Soviet (Parliament) of
Kyrgyzstan declared the country a democratic and independent
state. On the same occasion, Kyrgyzstan recognized the three
new states in the Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and
In October of that year, the first presidential election
was held in the country, and by this Askar Akayev was
elected without opposition. He was previously president of
the Soviet Academy of Sciences and an internationally
recognized physicist. Akayev was among the few political
leaders who, along with Boris Yeltsin, personally resisted
the Moscow parliament during the coup attempt in August.
By his takeover of power, Akayev became the first head of
state to ban the local Communist Party and at the same time
declare his republic independent. In December, Kyrgyzstan,
along with 10 other former Soviet republics, signed the
Treaty establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States
In December 1991, President Akayev had to veto a law
passed in parliament that restricted land ownership to only
Kyrgyz people. The enactment of the law had further
increased tensions between the indigenous population and the
Uzbek people in Ferganá, and could have led to an even
greater conflict with neighboring Uzbekistan.
A year earlier, more than 200 Uzbeks had been murdered by
young Kyrgyz gangs in the Osh region of the country's west.
Officially, the responsibility for the incident was laid on
the former secret Soviet police, the KGB.
Kyrgyzstan set up a small National Guard of 1000 men and
asked the state community to preserve its troops in the
country. The military presence was legitimized for security
reasons until the time when the republic would be able to
fully enter the international community.
In March 1992, the country's president confirmed the
decision to maintain neutrality on international issues.
Other Muslim countries such as Pakistan, Iran and Saudi
Arabia offered capital and wanted closer relations with
Kyrgyzstan, but Akayev declared that the country preferred
to develop its relations with Turkey.
24-25. October 1992 a clash between the local clans in
the Dzhelal-Abad region. Supporters of the deposed local
administration chief tried to reinstate him on his post.
President Akayev visited the region and participated
personally in resolving the conflict.
On May 5, 1993, a new constitution was adopted for
Kyrgyzstan. That same year, the president continued his
fight with parliament, which disagreed with his reform
policy. Due to rising tensions, the Russian minority
population - predominantly intellectuals and engineers -
began to leave the republic. The government also decided
that the country should issue its own currency, which.
In January 1994, Akayev won a referendum that was printed
to confirm support for him as president and his reform
policy. Throughout the rest of the year, he continued to
implement the economic policy recommended by the IMF. After
the introduction of the country's new currency, inflation
fell from 40-50% per month to 4% - one of the lowest rates
among the former Soviet republics. But it was not just
inflation that fell. In 1992, production fell by 19% and in
1993 by 16%, while imports from Turkey and China in
particular increased sharply.
The February 1995 parliamentary elections did not change
the opposition's political opposition to Akayev's
liberalization program. The president tried to maintain his
mandate through a referendum, but parliament forced him to
participate in the general elections in the December
presidential election that year. Akayev was re-elected with
60% of the vote.