In 2019, Kazakhstan had a population density of 7
residents per km2. 58 percent of the population
live in cities, of which Alma-Ata is the largest with 1.8
million residents (2018). Other major cities are Nur-Sultan
(1 million) and Tjimkent (951,600).
In 2006, it was estimated that 59 percent were Kazakhs,
while 26 percent were Russians, just over 3 percent
Ukrainians and 1.4 percent German kittens. The other more
than 10 percent are divided into Tatars, Uz cups,
Belarusians, Uighurs and others. For the ethnography of
Kazakhstan, see further Kazakhs.
The move of Slavic groups to Kazakhstan has been
significant since the 1930s, and not least in connection
with major new breeding programs during the 1950s and 60s.
Together with the purges directed against the Kazakhs during
Stalin's time, this has greatly influenced the ethnic
composition of the population. Since independence, in
particular, Russians and Germans have left the country.
Official language is Kazakh. Russian also has official
status. More than half of the population has Kazakh as their
mother tongue. Other major languages are Ukrainian, German,
Tatar, Uighur and Uzbek. Russian, Ukrainian and German are
spoken mainly in the newly cultivated regions of northern
Kazakhstan, while Kazakhs are spoken in central and southern
Kazakhstan. Uyghurs are widespread in the southeast, in the
border area with China.
Countryaah data, independent Kazakhstan is a secular state with a
constitution that guarantees religious freedom. The majority
population is traditionally Sunni Muslims (47%), but the
country is characterized by a widespread religious spread,
especially in the cities. With the help of organizations and
money from Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, a Muslim
revitalization is underway. In recent years, a large number
of mosques and other religious institutions have been built
in Kazakhstan. Islamic groups have been appointed to stand
behind various acts of violence, and the authorities have
banned the Hizb ut-Tahrir organization from operating in the
country. Sufiordnar has historically played an important
role, and in the city of Turkestan there is a mausoleum from
the late 1300s after the order founder Khoja Ahmad Yasawi.
The Jewish group has decreased due to emigration and
amounts to just under 1% (2008). Russian Orthodox is
estimated to be 44% of the population. In addition, there
are smaller groups of Baptists, Catholics and Presbyterians.
There are also small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses,
Seventh-day Adventists, Mennonites, and Mormons.
Foreign missionaries operate in the country, but in 2008
a number of representatives of various organizations were
expelled. The authorities often emphasize Kazakhstan's long
tradition of interreligious tolerance. At the same time, the
official tolerance of non-traditional religions that appeal
to youth has diminished.