In 2018, Ghana had an average population density of 125
residents per km2. The largest population
concentration is found in the southern parts of the country,
mainly in the urban areas and in the cocoa producing areas
as well as in the northeastern corner of the country.
About 56 percent of the population lives in cities;
however, this proportion is increasing rapidly. The largest
cities were the capital Accra (2.3 million residents, 2012)
and Kumasi (2 million).
Countryaah data, the population of Ghana consists of more than 80 ethnic
groups, all of whom feed predominantly on hack agriculture.
Base crops are yams, cassava, taro and bananas in the south
and sorghum and corn in the north. In the south, cocoa
cultivation plays an important economic role, while peanuts
for sale have some economic significance in the north, where
livestock management is also present.
In the south, the Akan people dominate, more than 50
percent of the country's population, which includes the
groups Ashanti (3.3 million), who during the 18th and 19th
centuries carried the important Ashanti kingdom, fanti (1.7
million), abron (1 million) and anyi (298,000).
In the southeast, in and around the capital, Accra, there
are ga (690,000) and adangme, together 7.5 percent of the
population, and east of them there is ewe (2.6 million).
These peoples traditionally feed, except on agriculture,
fishing and trade along the coast; the majority are
In the middle part of the country there are the Muslim
guang (which disintegrates into a number of smaller groups),
which in the 1600s formed a decentralized but economically
significant state based on trade.
The northern part of the country is populated by a long
line of belt-talking tribal people who are sometimes
collectively referred to as mole-day bans; among them are
dagomba (866,000) and mamprusi (256,000), which formed
traditional states, as well as concomba (596,000), kusasi
(489,000), sisala (125,000), tallensi (45,000) and, farthest
in the northwest, dagari (700,000), which constitute tribal
communities without central political leadership. Common to
the Mole-Dagbani is that they have predominantly maintained
their traditional tribal religions. Since the Second World
War, however, Islam has gained more influence in the north;
the number of Muslims here varies between 10 and 60 percent,
while Christianity plays a minor role. There are also about
365,000 yoruba in the country.
Despite the ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity,
there are few contradictions between the country's
population groups. However, there are clear differences
between, on the one hand, the peoples of the south, who have
long been influenced by Christianity and European education
and way of life, and, on the other, the peoples of the
north, whose culture has not undergone dramatic changes in
the context of European colonialism. The latter are often
associated with people from the South with Muslim lifestyle
in general. During Nkrumah's reign, the political opposition
was associated with the people of the north.
The official language is English. The native languages
belong to the Gur and Kwagren of the Niger-Congo family.
The most important language of the Nurs in the north. Among
the Kwa languages in the south, akan and ewe dominate. Six
of the indigenous languages are used in radio broadcasts.
The first Europeans to reach Ghana were Portuguese
sailors and traders. These introduced the Catholic Church in
the country in 1481. During the 17th century, the Portuguese
were challenged by merchants from the Netherlands, England,
Denmark, Sweden and Prussia - all Protestant shipping
nations. In 1874 the country (then called the Gold Coast)
became a British colony, which in 1957 became independent
under the name Ghana.
The Catholic Church today (2010) comprises about 13% of
Ghana's population. Protestants are about twice as many,
about 25%. The proportion of members in independent
Christian churches is estimated at 19% and the proportion of
independent Christians is estimated at 6%. Traditional
domestic religion is comprised of 16%. The country also has
several hundred indigenous African churches, some of which,
e.g. Christ Apostolic Church, of Nigerian origin. Among
Christians, Pentecostal and charismatic movements are the
fastest growing. In addition, a large number of faiths and
communities are represented in the country, among them a
religion unique to Ghana, Zetahil, which combines elements
of Islam and Christianity.
Islam has been introduced in Ghana in round; in the 15th
century through Muslim traders and imams, in the 16th
century through traders belonging to the Hausa people and
during the early 1800s when Muslim Nigerians fled from Usman
dan Fodio's holy war in northern Nigeria. Today, the
proportion of Muslims of Ghana's population (2010) is
reported to be just under 20%, most of which are Sunnis who
follow the Malikite law school. Sufism is represented by the
two brotherhoods Tijaniya and Qadiriya. Ahmadiya is the only
non-Sunni variety of Islam.
Ghana's constitution rests on religious grounds.
Nevertheless, the country is secular, as the constitution
does not allow any religious organization to become a state
religion. The constitution and other laws guarantee
religious freedom, something that the government also
The country has no government agency that handles
religious matters. All religious organizations are
independent institutions. However, like all other
non-governmental organizations, the religious must also
register at the Ministry of Justice's general registration
office to be formally recognized by the state. The state
does not financially support any religious organization. The
schools include religious education that combines Christian
and Islamic perspectives to varying degrees. The state has
in many ways promoted interreligious dialogue and