1952 Nasser to power
During World War II, Egypt was re-used as a British
military base. After the war, the country was hit by an
acute economic crisis. At the same time, there were strong
anti-critical sentiments among the people, the royal house
was unational, the governments corrupt and in 1948 England
contributed to the establishment of the State of Israel in
Palestine. Egypt and other Arab countries immediately
attacked the new state but were beaten. The defeat triggered
popular demonstrations against the monarchy. In this tense
social situation, a military group was created in the
military under the name of the Free Officers. It was led by
General Mohamed Naguib and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser. On
July 23, 1952, the group overthrew King Faruk and proclaimed
in June 53 the formation of a republic. Three years later,
Nasser became the country's president.
Class conditions up to the coup
the transition from a system where the family produced for
their own consumption to a specialized production of raw
materials for export, drove large amounts of landless
farmers from the land they cultivated into wage labor ifbm.
cotton production. Some of them got jobs in the modest
industry or in the urban service industries - the industrial
working class numbered only 400,000 in 1952 - but a large
part of them were without work or income. They came to live
on a subsistence basis as a city-based proletariat.
The great landowners had strengthened their position
during the British occupation. In the early 1900s, some of
them began investing in short-term urban projects, and a
smaller, bourgeois layer formed. It originated and was often
identical to the large landowners. The "foreign" citizenship
of the cities consisted of Turks, Greeks, Europeanized Jews
and Armenians. They were linked to the foreign banks and
monopolies that dominated the economy. Together with the
landowners, this citizenry formed the local class on which
the British relied - a "comrade citizenship" subordinate to
the interests of Western capital, with European culture and
way of life. It was this class that was hit by the Egyptian
National Revolution of 1952.
Alongside the "Comrade Citizenship" there was a layer of
prosperous peasants who either rented out their land or
obtained their income from the exploitation of wage laborers
on their land. These, too, invested an increasing share of
their profits in urban businesses, but were struck by the
speculation and fluctuations that would pave the way for an
Egyptian, capitalist development; Egyptization of
cultural, political and economic institutions. At the same
time, it was crucial for their position to keep control of
the abundant and cheap labor. It was essential for Nasser's
takeover of power that during the first stages of the
revolution he could rely on this part of the bourgeoisie.
The post-World War II economic crisis led to a growing
proletarianization of small farmers. They couldn't handle
the rising charges. In a number of places they joined with
the country workers in open rebellion. In the cities, the
more dynamic climate provided opportunities for educated
people: officials in the state administration, teachers,
craftsmen and retailers. Another option was the army. Since
1936, recruitment had been open to people from the middle
and petty bourgeoisie - ie. for the one who could afford to
pay the cost of the Military Academy. The petty-bourgeois
layer within the army was excluded from senior positions. It
was also unhappy with the British military presence and the
conservative state power that hindered the building of a
powerful national army. The "free officers" behind the coup
in 1952 came precisely from this environment.
Cairo, Cairo, capital of Egypt at the Nile approximately 15 km south of the place where
the river divides into the branches Damietta and Rosetta, and the Nile delta
begins. With an estimated population of 19.6 million. (2010) throughout the vast
metropolitan area, Cairo is one of the world's largest cities, unconditionally
Africa's largest, and the city continues to grow. It is not just the cultural,
political, administrative, industrial and tourist center of Egypt, but the
entire Middle East.
The oldest part of the city lies on the flat land between the Nile and the
Muqattambaks on the east bank. From here the city has spread along the Nile in
the north and south directions and on the western bank down to the pyramids to
the southwest. The two islands of Zamalek and Roda in the Nile are completely
integrated into the city.
Along the Nile are modern high-rise buildings and luxury hotels; a few
kilometers away is the old town with narrow streets, the bazaar Khan al-Khalili
and the al-Azhar mosque from 969 and its university. The city has a number of
universities and several other colleges.
The climate in Cairo is warm, dry and pleasant compared to other Middle
Eastern cities. It has made the city a favorite place to stay in the summer for,
among other things. Arabs from the Persian Gulf.
Cairo has undergone rapid urban growth, both in terms of population and area;
the inner part of the city has approximately 7.9 million (2006) and more cities have
been incorporated in Cairo and new suburbs are coming. In 1900 the city had
approximately 600,000 in, in 1980 approximately 8.8 million and in the early 2000's. maybe
double that. The population is not exactly known; in addition to a high birth
rate, the city receives most of the land-to-city migration in Egypt, and large
densely populated neighborhoods are popping up around the city, just as existing
urban neighborhoods are still continuing.
Since 1956, the City Council has prepared development plans for Cairo's
growth. The industrial zones were laid on the outskirts, in Helwan, Shubra
al-Khima, Imbaba and Giza. In the 1960's, these areas received approximately half of
the country's total industrial investment, and in the 1990's they account for
approximately 40% of Egypt's industry. In order to ease the pressure on the fertile
lands of Nildalen, industrial cities have been built in the desert, such as
Sadat City, which is located midway between Cairo and Alexandria.
Population growth has far exceeded what the city's traffic and supply systems
could handle. During the 1980's, the city government, including with considerable
support from Western donors, however, solved some of the problems. Virtually all
households have electricity and are estimated to have access to clean water and
have sewage. In the older neighborhoods close to the center, however, there are
very poor areas.
Cairo's traffic remains chaotic, although several new bridges over the Nile,
the subway, up to three floors and a ring road system have improved conditions.
The first metro, 43 km from Helwan in the south to Heliopolis in the north, was
completed, with French engineering assistance. Two more lines have come into
operation. Furthermore, with the completion of the motorway bridge across the
Nile south of the city, an outer ring road has now been established, whereby the
north-south pedestrian traffic no longer has to pass through the city center. A
major traffic problem is the lack of parking spaces; cars are parked everywhere
on sidewalks and in the narrow streets, blocking the traffic of other cars,
horse drawn cars and pedestrians. In an effort to reduce population pressure,
pollution and traffic problems in the city, several "satellite suburbs" have
been built in the desert.