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Religion in Egypt

Religions of Egypt

1952 Nasser to power

During World War II, Egypt was re-used as a British military base. After the war, the country was hit by an acute economic crisis. At the same time, there were strong anti-critical sentiments among the people, the royal house was unational, the governments corrupt and in 1948 England contributed to the establishment of the State of Israel in Palestine. Egypt and other Arab countries immediately attacked the new state but were beaten. The defeat triggered popular demonstrations against the monarchy. In this tense social situation, a military group was created in the military under the name of the Free Officers. It was led by General Mohamed Naguib and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser. On July 23, 1952, the group overthrew King Faruk and proclaimed in June 53 the formation of a republic. Three years later, Nasser became the country's president.

Class conditions up to the coup

According to Countryaah data, the transition from a system where the family produced for their own consumption to a specialized production of raw materials for export, drove large amounts of landless farmers from the land they cultivated into wage labor ifbm. cotton production. Some of them got jobs in the modest industry or in the urban service industries - the industrial working class numbered only 400,000 in 1952 - but a large part of them were without work or income. They came to live on a subsistence basis as a city-based proletariat.

The great landowners had strengthened their position during the British occupation. In the early 1900s, some of them began investing in short-term urban projects, and a smaller, bourgeois layer formed. It originated and was often identical to the large landowners. The "foreign" citizenship of the cities consisted of Turks, Greeks, Europeanized Jews and Armenians. They were linked to the foreign banks and monopolies that dominated the economy. Together with the landowners, this citizenry formed the local class on which the British relied - a "comrade citizenship" subordinate to the interests of Western capital, with European culture and way of life. It was this class that was hit by the Egyptian National Revolution of 1952.

Alongside the "Comrade Citizenship" there was a layer of prosperous peasants who either rented out their land or obtained their income from the exploitation of wage laborers on their land. These, too, invested an increasing share of their profits in urban businesses, but were struck by the speculation and fluctuations that would pave the way for an Egyptian, capitalist development; Egyptization of cultural, political and economic institutions. At the same time, it was crucial for their position to keep control of the abundant and cheap labor. It was essential for Nasser's takeover of power that during the first stages of the revolution he could rely on this part of the bourgeoisie.

The post-World War II economic crisis led to a growing proletarianization of small farmers. They couldn't handle the rising charges. In a number of places they joined with the country workers in open rebellion. In the cities, the more dynamic climate provided opportunities for educated people: officials in the state administration, teachers, craftsmen and retailers. Another option was the army. Since 1936, recruitment had been open to people from the middle and petty bourgeoisie - ie. for the one who could afford to pay the cost of the Military Academy. The petty-bourgeois layer within the army was excluded from senior positions. It was also unhappy with the British military presence and the conservative state power that hindered the building of a powerful national army. The "free officers" behind the coup in 1952 came precisely from this environment.

Cairo

Cairo, Cairo, capital of Egypt at the Nile approximately 15 km south of the place where the river divides into the branches Damietta and Rosetta, and the Nile delta begins. With an estimated population of 19.6 million. (2010) throughout the vast metropolitan area, Cairo is one of the world's largest cities, unconditionally Africa's largest, and the city continues to grow. It is not just the cultural, political, administrative, industrial and tourist center of Egypt, but the entire Middle East.

The oldest part of the city lies on the flat land between the Nile and the Muqattambaks on the east bank. From here the city has spread along the Nile in the north and south directions and on the western bank down to the pyramids to the southwest. The two islands of Zamalek and Roda in the Nile are completely integrated into the city.

Along the Nile are modern high-rise buildings and luxury hotels; a few kilometers away is the old town with narrow streets, the bazaar Khan al-Khalili and the al-Azhar mosque from 969 and its university. The city has a number of universities and several other colleges.

The climate in Cairo is warm, dry and pleasant compared to other Middle Eastern cities. It has made the city a favorite place to stay in the summer for, among other things. Arabs from the Persian Gulf.

Cairo has undergone rapid urban growth, both in terms of population and area; the inner part of the city has approximately 7.9 million (2006) and more cities have been incorporated in Cairo and new suburbs are coming. In 1900 the city had approximately 600,000 in, in 1980 approximately 8.8 million and in the early 2000's. maybe double that. The population is not exactly known; in addition to a high birth rate, the city receives most of the land-to-city migration in Egypt, and large densely populated neighborhoods are popping up around the city, just as existing urban neighborhoods are still continuing.

Since 1956, the City Council has prepared development plans for Cairo's growth. The industrial zones were laid on the outskirts, in Helwan, Shubra al-Khima, Imbaba and Giza. In the 1960's, these areas received approximately half of the country's total industrial investment, and in the 1990's they account for approximately 40% of Egypt's industry. In order to ease the pressure on the fertile lands of Nildalen, industrial cities have been built in the desert, such as Sadat City, which is located midway between Cairo and Alexandria.

Population growth has far exceeded what the city's traffic and supply systems could handle. During the 1980's, the city government, including with considerable support from Western donors, however, solved some of the problems. Virtually all households have electricity and are estimated to have access to clean water and have sewage. In the older neighborhoods close to the center, however, there are very poor areas.

Cairo's traffic remains chaotic, although several new bridges over the Nile, the subway, up to three floors and a ring road system have improved conditions. The first metro, 43 km from Helwan in the south to Heliopolis in the north, was completed, with French engineering assistance. Two more lines have come into operation. Furthermore, with the completion of the motorway bridge across the Nile south of the city, an outer ring road has now been established, whereby the north-south pedestrian traffic no longer has to pass through the city center. A major traffic problem is the lack of parking spaces; cars are parked everywhere on sidewalks and in the narrow streets, blocking the traffic of other cars, horse drawn cars and pedestrians. In an effort to reduce population pressure, pollution and traffic problems in the city, several "satellite suburbs" have been built in the desert.

 

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