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Religion in Egypt

Religions of Egypt

1952 Nasser to power

During World War II, Egypt was re-used as a British military base. After the war, the country was hit by an acute economic crisis. At the same time, there were strong anti-critical sentiments among the people, the royal house was unational, the governments corrupt and in 1948 England contributed to the establishment of the State of Israel in Palestine. Egypt and other Arab countries immediately attacked the new state but were beaten. The defeat triggered popular demonstrations against the monarchy. In this tense social situation, a military group was created in the military under the name of the Free Officers. It was led by General Mohamed Naguib and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser. On July 23, 1952, the group overthrew King Faruk and proclaimed in June 53 the formation of a republic. Three years later, Nasser became the country's president.

Class conditions up to the coup

According to Countryaah data, the transition from a system where the family produced for their own consumption to a specialized production of raw materials for export, drove large amounts of landless farmers from the land they cultivated into wage labor ifbm. cotton production. Some of them got jobs in the modest industry or in the urban service industries - the industrial working class numbered only 400,000 in 1952 - but a large part of them were without work or income. They came to live on a subsistence basis as a city-based proletariat.

The great landowners had strengthened their position during the British occupation. In the early 1900s, some of them began investing in short-term urban projects, and a smaller, bourgeois layer formed. It originated and was often identical to the large landowners. The "foreign" citizenship of the cities consisted of Turks, Greeks, Europeanized Jews and Armenians. They were linked to the foreign banks and monopolies that dominated the economy. Together with the landowners, this citizenry formed the local class on which the British relied - a "comrade citizenship" subordinate to the interests of Western capital, with European culture and way of life. It was this class that was hit by the Egyptian National Revolution of 1952.

Alongside the "Comrade Citizenship" there was a layer of prosperous peasants who either rented out their land or obtained their income from the exploitation of wage laborers on their land. These, too, invested an increasing share of their profits in urban businesses, but were struck by the speculation and fluctuations that would pave the way for an Egyptian, capitalist development; Egyptization of cultural, political and economic institutions. At the same time, it was crucial for their position to keep control of the abundant and cheap labor. It was essential for Nasser's takeover of power that during the first stages of the revolution he could rely on this part of the bourgeoisie.

The post-World War II economic crisis led to a growing proletarianization of small farmers. They couldn't handle the rising charges. In a number of places they joined with the country workers in open rebellion. In the cities, the more dynamic climate provided opportunities for educated people: officials in the state administration, teachers, craftsmen and retailers. Another option was the army. Since 1936, recruitment had been open to people from the middle and petty bourgeoisie - ie. for the one who could afford to pay the cost of the Military Academy. The petty-bourgeois layer within the army was excluded from senior positions. It was also unhappy with the British military presence and the conservative state power that hindered the building of a powerful national army. The "free officers" behind the coup in 1952 came precisely from this environment.

 

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